Lời giải ĐỀ THI IELTS 20/03/2021
The graph shows the proportion of people who were born in the UK, Asia and other regions resident in Australia over a 35-year period.
Overall, the percentage of those originally from the UK fell over the period, while the proportion of people of Asian origin rose sharply.
In 1976, about 14% of the Australian population were born in the UK, compared with 12% from other regions and 3% from Asia. The figure for those born in the UK declined steadily to 5% in 2011. In contrast, the percentage of those born in Asia increased significantly to reach 15% by the end of the period. The proportion of Australian residents from other regions fluctuated, falling to a low point of 8% in 1986. There was then a steady increase to 14% in 2006, with a slight fall in 2011.
The graph also shows the combined figures for people born in the UK, Asia and other regions, as a percentage of the total Australian population. In 1976 this stood at around 23%, falling to 21% in 2001 and then increasing to form one quarter of the Australian population in 2011.
Written by NgocBach
It is true that people are tending to spend more and more time at their work. There are a number of reasons for this trend, but I believe that the effects may be damaging to health and family life.
There are two major reasons why people are at risk of becoming workaholics. Firstly, few people now have a steady job, and they willingly accept a heavy workload because they fear that they may be made redundant. As many companies make cutbacks in the number of their employees, work becomes more labour-intensive and working hours increase. Secondly, many people are working longer simply in order to earn a living and support their families. While minimum wages are stagnant in countries such as the USA, for example, the cost of everyday necessities increases all the time.
The harmful effects on health and family life are serious. Overworking is detrimental to health. Exhausted employees are less alert to rules of health and safety in the workplace, for instance when operating potentially dangerous machinery or using hazardous substances. Working long hours results in physical fatigue and may also lead to mental health problems. In terms of family life, the more time that is spent working, the less time there is for parental involvement in raising children. Having a close-knit family is incompatible with long hours at work, especially in a single parent household in which part of the wages are used to pay for child-minding.
In conclusion, while there are clearly some reasons which explain this current trend, it is also clear that the consequences may have a negative impact on individuals and their families.
Written by NgocBach
Vocabulary from communication and personality:
- to be a workaholic/a shopaholic
Meaning: a person who spends too much time working/too much time shopping
Example: Although I take my studies seriously, I would not describe myself as a workaholic, because I have other interests too.
Vocabulary from work:
- to have a steady job
Meaning: to have a job which you are unlikely to lose, but which is usually the same routine
Example: Although some people prefer to change jobs, others prefer to have a steady job and a set daily routine at work.
- a heavy workload
Meaning: a lot of work that an individual employee has to perform
Example: While some people enjoy the challenge of a heavy workload, others find too much work very stressful.
Meaning: (of work) needing a lot of people to do it
Example: New technology has replaced the need for workers to do many labour- intensive jobs, such as producing cars.
- minimum wage
Meaning: the lowest wage that an employer is allowed to pay by law
Example: A minimum wage is necessary in order to ensure a decent standard of living for low-paid workers.
- health and safety in the workplace
Meaning: Conditions which are safe and are not a danger to health in factories, offices or other places where people work
Example: Government inspectors should regularly monitor companies to ensure that standards of health and safety in the workplace are observed.
Vocabulary from business and money:
- to be made redundant
Meaning: to lose one’s job
Example: The car factory has closed and 1000 employees have been made redundant.
- to make cutbacks
Meaning: to decrease, to reduce
Example: The company made cutbacks at their stores in New York and many employees were dismissed.
- to earn a living
Meaning: to earn money
Example: I used to earn a living as a teacher, but now I sell used cars.
Vocabulary from health:
- to be detrimental to health
Meaning: to be harmful to health
Example: Lying in the sun for too long can be detrimental to health and result in skin cancers.
- mental health problems
Meaning: related to illnesses of one’s mind
Example: Overwork may sometimes result in mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression.
Vocabulary from family and children:
- to support a family
Meaning: to have enough money to be able to look after a family
Example: Young people often delay marriage because they do not earn enough money to support a family.
- parental involvement
Meaning: the act or process of parents when taking part in their children’s activities.
Example: Parental involvement allows parents to monitor school and classroom activities, and to coordinate their efforts with teachers to encourage acceptable classroom behavior and ensure that the child completes schoolwork.
- a close-knit family
Meaning: a family having strong relationships with each other, helping with problems and enjoying a lot of time together
- Example: Children who come from a close-knit family generally perform well at school and enjoy a happy childhood.
- a single parent household
Meaning: a family in which one person takes care of their child or children without a husband, wife or partner
Example: As a result of changes in society, single parent households are no longer considered unusual.
Meaning: caring informally (not in schools) for children when parents are busy or working
Example: Working mothers with very young children face the problem of organising child-minding while they are away from home.
Vocabulary from traditional versus modern:
- to be incompatible with
Meaning: not able to exist or work with another person or thing because of basic differences
Example: The way of life of indigenous peoples is incompatible with modern cultures.
- damaging [adjective]:
Meaning: having a bad effect on somebody or something
Example: His busy social life was damaging for his studies, as he was rarely in the library.
- stagnant [adjective]:
Meaning: not growing, not changing or developing
Example: The demand for luxury goods has been stagnant during the economic crisis.
- necessities [noun]:
Meaning: things that you must have and cannot live without them
Example: Food, warmth and shelter are basic human necessities.
- hazardous [adjective]:
Meaning: dangerous for somebody’s health or safety
Example: It is important that all hazardous products, such as certain chemicals, are clearly labelled.
- fatigue [noun]:
Meaning: a feeling of being very tired, usually as a result of hard work or exercise
Example: She suffers from fatigue, because she has two jobs and looks after her two children.