Lời giải ĐỀ THI IELTS 18/01/2020
The flow chart illustrates the process of making ethanol fuel from corn.
Overall, the process consists of 9 stages, beginning with corn, the raw material ready for processing, and ending with the transportation of the finished product to the customer.
First, the corn at the processing plant is stored, ready for the next stage, which is milling to break down the corn. After the corn has been milled, water is added. The corn is then cooked in the water for 4 hours. Following cooking, the corn is left to ferment for 48 hours.
After this period of fermentation, the next step is the separation of the corn into a solid by-product and a liquid. The liquid then enters the stage of purification to produce ethanol which is completely pure, a process which takes 5 hours. In the final stages of the process, the ethanol is stored, prior to transportation to the customer.
Written by NgocBach
In order to achieve success in sport, some people argue that it is more important to be strong mentally than physically. While no sportsperson can reach the top without the mental qualities of determination and dedication, I believe that the basis for success must be physical strength.
On the one hand, all sports trainers recognise the necessity of a strong mental attitude. Firstly, if trainers cannot foster a competitive spirit, or even a win-at-all-costs attitude, the sportspeople who they train may lack the necessary motivation to work hard and succeed. Hours spent training in the gym, for example, may be repetitive and boring, and aspiring athletes need to stay focused. Secondly, in any sport there will be disappointments and failures, and it is essential to be mentally strong to overcome these and achieve one’s goals. In particular, in the world of professional sport, where news coverage places too much value on sport, it is impossible to have a laid-back attitude and still succeed.
On the other hand, physical strength must be the basis of all success in sport. While most people take up sport simply to get into shape or to keep fit, those who wish to become successful must be physically strong. Obvious examples are sports such as weightlifting, boxing or judo. Yet all other sports also demand physical strength for stamina and endurance, even sailing or horse-riding. Some sports stars, such as the world-famous professional cyclist Lance Armstrong, have even used illegal substances, like performance-enhancing drugs, in order to reach and maintain top physical condition, risking their careers.
In conclusion, both physical and mental strength are necessary to become successful in sport, but it is impossible to succeed without being physically strong.
Written by NgocBach
Vocabulary from sport and exercise:
- to foster a competitive spirit
Meaning: encourage the desire to beat others in a sports event
Example: The problem with encouraging sport at school is that it fosters a competitive spirit among students, instead of teaching children simply to do the best that they can in all aspects of life.
- a win-at-all-costs attitude
Meaning: an idea that a match or competition must be won, using all possible means
Example: Youth sport is being ruined by a win-at-all-costs attitude, which includes cheating and breaking the rules in order to achieve victory.
- to place too much value on sport
Meaning: to regard sport as too important
Example: I would argue that schools place too much value on sport in the curriculum, and participation in sport should be an out-of-school activity.
- to take up sport/to take up exercise
Meaning: to start doing a sport, to start doing exercise
Example: Governments should provide sports facilities to encourage more people to take up sport.
- to get into shape
Meaning: to become fit
Example: If people have a sedentary lifestyle, they must do regular exercise to get into shape.
- to keep fit
Meaning: to stay in good physical condition
Example: A healthy diet and plenty of exercise are essential for people to keep fit.
- to use illegal substances
Meaning: to use drugs or medicines which are not allowed under the rules of a competition
Example: In professional sport, it has become increasingly common to use illegal substances in order to win at all costs.
- performance-enhancing drugs
Meaning: drugs which improve the ability of a sportsperson to compete
Example: Athletes who take performance-enhancing drugs are not only cheating, but they also set a bad example for young people.
Vocabulary from media and advertising:
- news coverage
Meaning: the reporting of news and sport in newspapers, TV, or radio.
Example: The US presidential election received global news coverage, so that the whole world became interested in the outcome.
- to reach the top [expression]:
Meaning: to be successful
Example: He is working hard at his job, because he wants to reach the top.
- aspiring [adjective]:
Meaning: wanting to be successful
Example: Aspiring musicians need hours of practice every day.
- to stay focused [expression]:
Meaning: with your attention directed to what you want to do
Example: Mary works hard, and if she stays focused she will pass her exams.
- stamina [noun]:
Meaning: the physical strength that enables you to do something for a long time
Example: You need a lot of stamina to run a marathon.
- endurance [noun]:
Meaning: the ability to continue doing something painful or difficult for a long time without giving up
Example: The marathon tests both physical and mental endurance.