Lời giải ĐỀ THI IELTS 17/04/2021
The line graph illustrates how many marriages took place over a 50-year period in the UK, comparing the number of first marriages and remarriages (any partner).
Overall, it is clear that there were many more first marriages than remarriages. The numbers of first marriages fluctuated over the period, whereas the number of remarriages remained relatively stable.
In 1951, a total of about 450,000 marriages took place, and this figure rose steadily to reach a peak of 550,000 in 1981. The numbers then declined to 500,000 and to 450,000 in 1991 and 2001 respectively.
At the start of the period, there were around 375,000 first marriages compared with only 100,000 remarriages. The number of first marriages then saw a gradual increase, reaching a peak of 425,000 in 1981. However, the figures then fell significantly to 325,000 in 2001. In contrast, the number of remarriages remained almost constant throughout the period, at around 100,000 with only small fluctuations.
Written by NgocBach
It is true that individual consumption has generally increased in the world today, among people in both developed and developing countries. While this should lead to increasing happiness, particularly in developed countries where consumption is greater, this is not always the result. It is necessary to explore and understand the reasons for this.
I would argue that people are happier when they have a useful role to play in their community, but societies are breaking down. One major factor is the growing influence of commercial advertising, which has helped to create today’s consumer society. Its influence is global, but its chief target audience is consumers in developed countries, because they have the greatest spending power. Another factor is the population shift of people to cities. Over half the world’s population live in cities, but in Japan and the USA, for example, the figures are more than 90% and 80% respectively. Cities are concrete jungles, where social bonds no longer exist and people feel a sense of alienation.
Lessons should be learned. Firstly, advertising must be restricted and monitored by government agencies, so that they no longer promote greed and selfishness in order to maximise profits. I believe that people with a social conscience are disillusioned with a life based on consuming more and more. Secondly, urban spaces must be redesigned to include the demolition of high-rise buildings and the construction of social and community centres where people can find happiness through a feeling of community and organise their own activities.
In conclusion, although economic growth has created more wealth, the ethical focus in all countries must now be on re-building communities to create a happier and more just world.
Written by NgocBach
Vocabulary from media and advertising:
- commercial advertising
Meaning: advertising on the radio or television, between or during programmes.
Example: Commercial advertising on television provides the revenue for most TV channels.
- target audience
Meaning: consumers whom businesses aim at when selling their products
Example: Companies which sell soft drinks, like Coca Cola, aim mainly at a target audience of children and adolescents.
Vocabulary from society:
- the consumer society
Meaning: a society in which buying and selling are considered extremely important
Example: Money and possessions are considered to be more important than family and friends in today’s consumer society.
- social conscience
Meaning: the state of being aware of the problems that affect a lot of people in society, such as being poor or having no home, and wanting to do something to help these people
Example: Charities depend on the social conscience of the public in order to obtain donations and recruit volunteer helpers.
- social and community centres
Meaning: places where people who live in the same area can meet for events or to do different activities
Example: Elderly people who live alone are able to make friends and enjoy life more if local authorities provide social and community centres.
Vocabulary from cities:
- a population shift
Meaning: a change in the numbers of people who live in a particular are
Example: The last two centuries have seen a global population shift of people from rural areas to cities.
- a concrete jungle
Meaning: a way to describe a city that is unpleasant because it has many large modern buildings and few parks, trees or green spaces
Example: Children growing up in a concrete jungle will never experience the sights and smells of the countryside.
- social bonds
Meaning: a close connection joining two or more people in society
Example: The family and social bonds in villages are broken when people move to a city.
- a sense of alienation
Meaning: the feeling that you have no connection with the people around you
Example: Unfortunately, urbanisation also creates a sense of alienation in people.
- to be disillusioned with
Meaning: to be disappointed, because you expected something to be good
Example: Migrants are sometimes disillusioned with their experience of the city when they are unable to enjoy a better life there.
- a feeling of community
Meaning: the feeling of sharing things and belonging to a group in the place where you live
Example: Cities can be very lonely places, where a feeling of community does not exist and people do not even know their neighbours.
Vocabulary from business and money:
- to maximise profits
Meaning: to increase profits to the highest possible level
Example: The company has hired a marketing consultant to recommend how to maximise profits next year.
Vocabulary from housing and architecture:
- high-rise buildings
Meaning: tall modern buildings (not as tall as skyscrapers)
Example: The centre of my city is now full of high-rise buildings, mainly offices and apartments, and the city has lost its old charm.
- chief [adjective]:
Meaning: the most important
Example: During the battle, his chief concern was to avoid injury.
- spending power [noun]:
Meaning: the amount of money that a person or organisation has available to spend
Example: When Ann and her husband, John, lost their jobs, the spending power of their household was greatly reduced.
- to monitor [verb]:
Meaning: to watch and check something over a period of time, so that you can make any necessary changes
Example: In the hospital, the doctors monitored his condition constantly.
- demolition [noun]:
Meaning: the act of pulling down a building
Example: The building was not safe, so the local authorities ordered its demolition.