Lời giải ĐỀ THI IELTS 04/06/2022
The pie charts compare the proportion of men and women working in three sectors in two countries.
Overall, the proportion of males and females employed in the service sector was higher than the percentage working either in industry and agriculture in both countries. However, a much higher percentage of men and women in Country A worked in agriculture than in Country B.
The highest percentage of workers in both countries were employed in the service sector. This figure for men was 56% in Country A and 65% in Country B. The proportion of females working in services was higher than among men at 88% in Country B, although in Country A the figure was only 49%.
Only 3% of men in Country B worked in agriculture, whereas the figure in Country A was almost 10 times higher. While 1% of females in Country B were employed in agriculture, in Country A this figure was 43%. In contrast, male workers in industry in Country B totalled 32%, more than double the percentage in Country A, although among women workers the figures for industry were similar, at 11% and 8% respectively.
Written by NgocBach (www.ngocbach.com)
It is true that environmental damage is a worldwide catastrophe . Some major causes can be easily identified and governments should assume responsibility for taking action to prevent an ecological crisis.
There are three major causes of environmental damage across the globe. Firstly, the rising consumption of raw materials has led to an increase in mineral extraction, for example oil or gas from Russia, the USA and the Middle East countries. Secondly, deforestation has taken place in many regions of the world, including almost all the lowland tropical rainforests, resulting in drought and habitat destruction affecting millions of species. Many creatures are now on the brink of extinction. Finally, the depletion of natural resources has gone hand-in-hand with polluting activities. The burning or dumping of toxic waste and of materials that are not bio-degradable has contaminated the air that we breathe, the food that we eat and the water that we drink.
Government at all levels – local, national and international authorities – must be held accountable for preventing further environmental degradation. The oceans, for example, are heavily polluted and international law must be enforced by international bodies before all marine life is killed. In addition, governments should impose an official ban on all activities that harm or pollute the environment and allocate resources to schemes such as tree planting or the creation of local nature reserves and national parks. Individuals can form pressure groups to campaign for governments to take such action and support organisations such as Greenpeace or the Worldwide Fund for Nature.
In conclusion, the causes of environmental damage need to be tackled by governments, who alone have the power to enforce laws to protect our precious environment.
Written by NgocBach (www.ngocbach.com)
Vocabulary from the environment:
- an ecological crisis
Meaning: a serious situation that occurs when the environment of a species or a population changes in a way that destabilizes its continued survival
Example: Environmental degradation caused by human activity is provoking an ecological crisis which threatens our existence.
- habitat destruction
Meaning: the process that occurs when a natural habitat, like a forest or wetland, is changed so dramatically by humans that plants and animals which live there no longer survive.
Example: The elephant population in the world is declining because of habitat destruction caused by human exploitation of the environment.
- on the brink of extinction
Meaning: an animal or plant which has almost disappeared from the planet
Example: Before the captive breeding program in zoos, the giant panda was on the brink of extinction.
- to deplete natural resources
Meaning: to reduce the amount of natural resources.
Example: Timber companies must not be allowed to deplete natural resources by cutting down trees without planting new trees to replace them.
- toxic waste
Meaning: poisonous, unwanted waste produced by factories
Example: Many species of fish are endangered as a result of the toxic waste dumped by industries into the rivers and the sea.
- to be bio-degradable
Meaning: a substance or chemical that can be changed to a natural harmless state by the action of bacteria
Example: Most plastics are not biodegradable, and remain as waste products in the environment for thousands of years.
- to hold sbdy accountable for + noun/gerund
Meaning: to consider someone responsible for something; to blame something on someone
Example: Companies which discharge chemical waste from their factories into the sea or into rivers must be held accountable for their actions and be fined heavily.
- environmental degradation
Meaning: the process or fact of the environment becoming worse
Example: Africa is a continent in which environmental degradation is evident in the spread of deserts and the extinction of animal species.
Vocabulary from government:
- national and local authorities
Meaning: government organizations acting at a national level or within a smaller, local area
Example: Tackling crime is a responsibility of both national and local authorities.
- international bodies
Meaning: organizations which operate in many countries
Example: National governments ought to give funds to international bodies, like the Red Cross and the United Nations, to deal with emergency situations.
- to impose an official ban on
Meaning: to say or declare that something is not allowed
Example: Governments ought to impose an official ban on the use of mobile phones on public transport.
- to allocate resources to
Meaning: to make money and materials available to do something
Example: If governments allocate more resources to improving public transport, this will reduce the problem of traffic congestion in cities.
- to form a pressure group
Meaning: to organize a group of people who try to influence the government to achieve the action that they want.
Example: Activists in my country have formed a pressure group to persuade the government to close nuclear power stations.
- to campaign for something
Meaning: to take part in a series of activities in order to achieve a specific aim.
Example: People who are concerned about the environment should campaign for stricter controls on pollution.
- catastrophe [noun]:
Meaning: an event or series of events that causes many people to suffer.
Example: War is always a catastrophe. Many people are killed, wounded or lose their homes.
- go hand-in-hand with [expression]:
Meaning: to be closely connected with, and one thing may be the cause of the other
Example: Unemployment often goes hand-in-hand with poverty and crime.
- dumping [noun]:
Meaning: the act of leaving something that you don’t want in a place that is not suitable, especially dangerous things like chemicals
Example: Dumping toxic waste in the oceans is banned by international law.
- contaminate [verb]:
Meaning: to make a substance or a place dirty by adding something that is harmful
Example: The river was contaminated with waste from the factory, and all the fish in the river died.