Lời giải ĐỀ THI IELTS 28/05/2022
The line graph compares the proportion of exports from Australia, to Japan, the USA, China and India between 1990 and 2012.
Overall, it is clear that the largest percentage of exports went to Japan before 2005. However, the proportion of exports to China overtook those to Japan after 2005.
In 1990, exports to Japan accounted for 27% of the total, more than double the figure for Australian exports to the USA. By contrast, exports to China and India were low, at 2% and 1%, respectively. While the proportion of exports to Japan fell to 19% and exports to the USA fell to 9% in 1995, the figure for exports to China and India rose slowly.
There was a gradual decrease in the proportion of exports to Japan, which stood at 18% in 2012. The US export market fluctuated, but the trend after 1995 was downward, finishing at 7% of total exports at the end of the period. Although exports to India also fluctuated, these rose overall to 6% in 2012. The most significant change, however, was the growth in exports to China, overtaking those to Japan, and reaching a peak of 30% in 2012.
Written by NgocBach (www.ngocbach.com)
In many parts of the world there is a dramatic increase in city populations. While this trend has major impacts on those living in rapidly-growing cities, some measures should be taken to maintain the quality of life of city residents.
The mass exodus in the developing world of people from the countryside to the cities has had profound effects on the lives of people living in those cities. The urban infrastructure is inadequate to cope with the rapid rise in population density, affecting the lives of urban dwellers in various ways. Firstly, the existing housing stock cannot provide accommodation for everyone, creating problems of homelessness and the growth of shanty towns across the world, for example in Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town or Mexico City. People there must endure squalid living conditions. Secondly, as cities expand too quickly, there are not enough schools, hospitals or transport services. Finally, not enough work is available to provide jobs for everyone, resulting in unemployment, poverty and rising crime.
In order to maintain the quality of life of city residents, urgent measures must be imposed. People must have access to amenities, and this could be done through urban construction programmes. Jobs would be created building new houses, schools, health centres, roads and water pipes. To solve the problem of the rapid migration of labour from rural areas to the cities, governments should introduce restrictions on the numbers of people flooding into the cities. This could be a stopgap measure while funding was provided for rural development in terms of jobs, education, housing and health services.
In conclusion, there are serious consequences of rapid urban growth, and action must be taken to ensure a decent quality of life for people in those cities that are affected.
Written by NgocBach (www.ngocbach.com)
Vocabulary from cities:
- a mass exodus
Meaning: the movement of a lot of people from a place
Example: Recently, there has been a mass exodus of workers from the villages to the towns.
- urban infrastructure
Meaning: the basic systems and services that are necessary in a city
Example: The influx of immigrants into cities has put a huge strain on the urban infrastructure.
- to be inadequate to cope with
Meaning: not good enough to deal with a problem
Example: The rapid growth of cities has meant that urban infrastructure, such as housing, water and waste disposal services have been inadequate to cope with the demands of an increasing population.
- population density
Meaning: the number of people in a place when compared with the size of the place
Example: Tokyo is a city which has one of the highest population densities in the world.
- urban dwellers
Meaning: people who live in a city or a town
Example: The main reason that prevents urban dwellers from building relationships with their neighbours is fear of strangers.
- the housing stock
Meaning: all the houses available for living in
Example: The inadequate housing stock in most cities has resulted in high rents, overcrowded living conditions and the growth of slum areas.
- to endure squalid living conditions
Meaning: very dirty and unpleasant conditions in which to live
Example: Newcomers to a city are often forced to endure squalid living conditions.
- to have access to amenities
Meaning: to be able to access something, such as a swimming pool or shopping centre, that is intended to make life more pleasant or comfortable for the people in a city
Example: People living in urban areas have better access to amenities and lead more comfortable lives.
Vocabulary from housing:
- a shanty town
Meaning: an area in or near a town/city where poor people live in small houses built of pieces of wood, metal or cardboard
Example: In undeveloped countries, there are often shanty towns on the edge of prosperous cities.
Vocabulary from society:
- the migration of labour
Meaning: the movement of workers from one place to another
Example: The migration of labour from the countryside to the cities is a feature of modern society.
Vocabulary from government:
- to introduce restrictions on
Meaning: to limit what people can do or what can happen
Example: The government must introduce restrictions on smoking in public places.
- a stopgap measure
Meaning: a policy or action adopted for a short time until some more permanent solution is found
Example: Building more prisons will not solve the problem of rising crime rates, but it is a stopgap measure which the government must take to protect ordinary citizens.
- to provide funding for
Meaning: to give money to enable something to be done
Example: Providing funding for health care must be a priority of governments.
- profound [adjective]:
Meaning: very great or experienced very strongly
Example: When John became unemployed, this had a profound effect on his life.
- flood into [phrasal verb]:
Meaning: to arrive or go somewhere in large numbers
Example: Large numbers of immigrants flooded into the USA in the 19th and 20th centuries.
- decent [adjective]:
Meaning: of a good enough standard or quality
Example: I would recommend this student. She did work of a decent standard throughout the school year.